Monday, 25 February 2013

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is easily cured if found and treated early. Symptoms of bladder cancer include painful urination and blood in the urine. Causes are unknown. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
The most common symptoms of bladder cancer include:

Blood or blood clots in the urine (hematuria). Hematuria occurs in 8 or 9 out of 10 people who have bladder cancer and is the most common symptom. Usually it is not painful.
Pain during urination (dysuria).
Urinating small amounts frequently.
Frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Symptoms that may indicate more advanced bladder cancer include:
Pain in the lower back around the kidneys (flank pain).
Swelling in the lower legs.
A growth in the pelvis near the bladder (pelvic mass).
Other symptoms that may develop when bladder cancer has spread include:
Weight loss.
Bone pain or pain in the rectal, anal, or pelvic area.
The symptoms of bladder cancer may be similar to symptoms of other bladder conditions.

Bladder cancer is twice as likely to develop in smokers than in nonsmokers(though not limited to smokers). Experts believe that smoking causes about half of bladder cancer in men and more than one-fourth of bladder cancer in women.
Exposure to chemicals and other substances at work-including dyes, paints, leather dust, and others-may also cause bladder cancer.
The choice of treatment and the long-term outcome (prognosis) for people who have bladder cancer depend on the stage and grade of cancer. When deciding about your treatment, your doctor also considers your age, overall health, and quality of life.

Bladder cancer has a better chance of being treated successfully if it is found early.

Treatment choices for bladder cancer may include:

Surgery to remove the cancer. Surgery, either alone or along with other treatments, is used in more than 9 out of 10 cases.1 For more information, see Surgery.
Chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells using medicines. Chemotherapy may be given before or after surgery. For more information, see Medications.
Radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells using high-dose X-rays or other high-energy rays. Radiation therapy may also be given before or after surgery and may be given at the same time as chemotherapy. For more information, see Other Treatment.
Immunotherapy. This treatment causes your body's natural defenses, known as your immune system, to attack bladder cancer cells. For more information, see Medications.
Women who have the bladder removed (radical cystectomy) will also have the ovaries and uterus removed. They cannot become pregnant and may experience menopause soon after having the cystectomy.
Men who have their prostate glands and seminal vesicles removed may have erection problems and will no longer produce semen.
Your feelings about your body may change following treatment for cancer. Managing body image issues may involve talking openly about your concerns with your partner and discussing your feelings with your doctor. Your doctor may also be able to refer you to groups that can offer support and information.



No comments:

Post a Comment