Monday, 18 March 2013


Am not going to bore you with the various types of breast cancer that affect men, but one thing is certain it thus affect men. Contrary to the general perception held by most people that breast cancer is a female phenomenon, research has showned that quite a good number of men suffer from it. Though it is more prevalent in women than men and also happens more in older men. 
syptoms of  breast cancer in men
·  A painless lump or thickening in your breast tissue 
·         Changes to the skin covering your breast, such as dimpling, puckering, redness or scaling
·         Changes to your nipple, such as redness or scaling, or a nipple that begins to turn inward
·         Discharge from your nipple
CAUSES-It's not clear what causes male breast cancer. Doctors know that male breast cancer occur when breasr cancer cells begin to grow abnormally. These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do. The accumulating cells form a tumor that may spread (metastasize) to nearby tissue, to the lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.Where breast cancer begins in men .Everyone is born with a small amount of breast tissue. Breast tissue is made up of milk-producing glands (lobules), ducts that carry milk to the nipples and fat. Women begin developing more breast tissue during puberty and men do not. Because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer.
Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include:
Cancer that begins in the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of male breast cancer. Nearly all male breast cancers begin in the milk ducts.Cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands. Lobular carcinoma is rare in men  because men have few lobules in their breast tissue

·         Cancer that spreads to the nipple. In some cases, breast cancer can form in the milk ducts and spread to the nipple, causing crusty, scaly skin around the nipple. This is called Paget's disease of the nipple.
Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk 
Some men inherit mutated genes from their parents that increase the risk of breast cancer. Mutations in one of several genes, especially a gene called BRCA2, put you at greater risk of developing breast and prostate cancers. The normal function of these genes is to help prevent cancer by making proteins that keep cells from growing abnormally. But if they have a mutation, the genes aren't as effective at protecting you from cancer.
Meeting with a genetic counselor and undergoing genetic testing can determine whether you carry gene mutations that increase your risk of breast cancer. Discuss the benefits and risks of genetic testing with your doctor.
Risk factors
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Factors that increase the risk of male breast cancer include:
·         Older age. Breast cancer is most common in men ages 60 to 70.
·         Exposure to estrogen. If you take estrogen-related drugs, such as those used as part of a sex-change procedure, your risk of breast cancer is increased. Estrogen drugs may also be used in hormone therapy for prostate cancer.
·         Family history of breast cancer. If you have a close family member with breast cancer, you have a greater chance of developing the disease.
·         Klinefelter's syndrome. This genetic syndrome occurs when a boy is born with more than one copy of the X chromosome. Klinefelter's syndrome causes abnormal development of the testicles. As a result, men with this syndrome produce lower levels of certain male hormones (androgens) and more female hormones (estrogens).
·         Liver disease. If you have liver disease, such as cirrhosis of the liver, your male hormones may be reduced and your female hormones may be increased. This can increase your risk of breast cancer.
·         Obesity. Obesity may be a risk factor for breast cancer in men because it increases the number of fat cells in the body. Fat cells convert androgens into estrogen, which may increase the amount of estrogen in your body and, therefore, your risk of breast cancer.
·         Radiation exposure. If you've received radiation treatments to your chest, such as those used to treat cancers in the chest, you're more likely to develop breast cancer later in life.

How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed and Treated in Men?

The same techniques that are used to diagnose breast cancer in women are also used in men, such as physical exams, mammography, and biopsies (examining small samples of the tissue under a microscope).
Likewise, the same treatments that are used in treating breast cancer in women --surgeryradiationchemotherapy, and endocrine therapy -- are also used to treat breast cancer in men. The one major difference is that men with breast cancer respond much better to hormone treatments than women do. Approximately 77% of male breast cancers have hormone receptors, that is, they have specific sites on the cancer cells where specific hormones like estrogen can act. In addition, 71% of male breast cancers are BRCA positive (usually BRCA-2). As a result, hormonal treatment is more likely to be effective.




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